考研英語歷年[1997-2018]真題講解

  • 名稱:考研英語歷年[1997-2
  • 分類:考研英語  
  • 觀看人數:加載中
  • 時間:2019/9/14 16:18:22
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考研英語翻譯部分難度大,考生要想掌握翻譯的精髓就得加強對真題的研究和理解。新東方在線特別分享考研英語翻譯歷年真題解析,我們詳細的來分析下歷年真題,找到突破口:

1997年全真試題1998年全國碩士研究生入學統一考試英語試題

Section I Cloze Test Directions:

For each numbered blank in the following passage,there are four choices marked[A],

[B],[C],and[D].Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANS WER SHEET

1by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(10 points)

Until recent 1y most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution.

Theylthat in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the 2 man.

But they insisted that its 3 resuts during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 4 of the English population.5 contrast they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to 1750,when England was still a 6 agricultural country,a period of great abundance and prosperity.

This view.7,is generally thought to be wrong.Specialists 8 history and economics,have 9 two things:that the period from 1650 to 1750 was 10 by great poverty,and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.

1.[A]admitted[B]believed[C]claimed[D]predicted

2.[A]plain[B]average[c]mean[D]normal

1997年

Directions:

Readthe following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentencesinto Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do animals have rights? This is how the question is usually put. Itsounds like a useful, groundclearing wayto start. (71) Actually, itisn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights,which is something the world does not have.

On one view of rights, to be sure, it necessarily follows thatanimals have none. (72) Somephilosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part ofan exchange of duties and entitlements. Therefore, animals cannot haverights. The idea of punishing a tiger that kills somebody is absurd, forexactly the same reason, so is the idea that tigers have rights. However, thisis only one account, and by no means an uncontested one. It denies rights notonly to animals but also to some people — for instance to infants, the mentallyincapable and future generations. In addition, it is unclear what force acontract can have for people who never consented to it, how do you reply tosomebody who says “I don't like this contract”?

The point is this: without agreement on the rights of people,arguing about the rights of animals is fruitless. (73) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: itinvites you to think that animals should be treated either with theconsideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.This is a false choice. Better to start with another, more fundamental,question: is the way we treat animals a moral issue at all?

Many deny it. (74)Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevantrespect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area ofmoral choice. Any regard for the suffering of animals is seen as a mistake— a sentimental displacement of feeling that should properly be directed toother humans.

This view which holds that torturing a monkey is morally equivalentto chopping wood, may seem bravely “logical”. In fact it is simply shallow: theconfused center is right to reject it. The most elementary form of moralreasoning — the ethical equivalent of learning to crawl — is to weigh others'interests against one's own. This in turn requires sympathy and imagination:without there is no capacity for moral thought. To see an animal in pain isenough, for most, to engage sympathy. (75)When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct formoral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather thanlaughed at.

精美譯文:

動物有權力嗎?問題通常就是這樣提出的。這種提法聽起來似乎有助于把問題講清楚。(71)事實并非如此,因為這種問法是以人們對人的權利有一種共識為基礎的,而這種共識并不存在。

  誠然,根據對權利的一種看法,必然認為,這只是一種認識,而且是一種有爭議的認識。這種認識不僅剝奪了動物的權利,而且也剝奪了某些人的權利,例如嬰兒,他們是不會用腦力來思考問題的未來一代人。此外,誰也不清楚,對于從來就不同意契約的人來說,這項契約又有多少約束力,因為有人要是說“我不喜歡這項契約”,那你又如何作答呢?

  問題的癥結是,如果人們對人的權利沒有一致的看法,那么爭論動物的權利是徒勞無益的?(73)這種說法從一開始就將討論引向兩個極端,它使人們認為應這樣對待動物:要么像對人類自身一樣關切體諒,要么完全冷漠無情。這是一處錯誤的選擇。最好換一種更為根本性的提法:我們對待動物的同情感用到關心動物的身上。

  許多人否認這種提法。(74)這類人持極端看法,認為人與動物在各相關方面都不相同,對待動物無須考慮道德問題。任何關心動物疾苦的想法都是錯誤的,因為它把應該用來關心其他人的同情感用到關心動物的身上。

這種觀點認為,折磨猴子從道義上講無異于劈柴。這種看法似乎是大膽的“邏輯推理”。實際上,這種看法是非常膚淺的,因為它邏輯混亂,所以應該摒棄。道德推理的最初級形式,和學習爬行的論理一樣,是針對自身利益去權衡他人利益。這就需要同情心和將心比心的想像力,沒有這兩點就無法用道德觀念來進行思考。看到動物受苦足以使大多數人產生同情感。(75)這種反應并不錯,這是人類用道德觀念進行推理的本能在起作用。這種本能應該得到鼓勵,而不應遭到嘲笑。

題目解析:

71)Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of humanrights, which is something the world does not have.

結構分析:

71) 狀語結構Actually, // 主句it // isn't, //原因狀語從句because // it // assumes // 賓語從句that there // is // an agreed account of / human rights, // 定語從句which // is // something // 定語從句(省略that)the world // does not have.

詞義推敲:

it isn’t = It isn’t a useful, ground-clearingway to start.譯作“事實并非如此”也能得分。

it主語代詞,根據上下文意思這種問法,這種說法。

because it assumes

it 指代“這種問題”,是第二次提及,所以可以譯作“它”。

assume:to take forgranted; suppose 想當然;以為

an agreed accountof human rights:對于人權的約定的看法,共同的認識

human rights 人的權利,人權

account:carefulthought 仔細考慮

which 指代“agreedaccount”

參考譯文:

事實并非如此,因為這種問法是以人們對人的權利有共同的認識為基礎的,而這種共同認識并不存在。

這種問法不恰當,因為這種問法假設人們對人權有共同的認識,這種共同的認識是(世界上)沒有的。

得分重點:

原因狀語從句,賓語從句,省略結構

72) Some philosophers argue that rightsexist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties andentitlements.

結構分析:

72) 主句Some philosophers // argue // 賓語從句that rights // exist // only within a social contract, // 介詞短語作非限制性定語as // part of / an exchange of / duties and entitlements.

詞義推敲:

argue:to attemptto prove by reasoning; maintain or contend 堅持,主張列舉證明極力列舉理由以證明;堅持或主張

social contract 社會契約

contract:an agreementbetween two or more parties, especially one that is written and enforceable bylaw 合同,契約兩個或兩個以上當事人之間達成的一種協議,尤指具有法律效力的書面協議

as part of 作為(是)……的一部分

exchange:to give inreturn for something received; trade 交換,交易給…以作為收到某物的回報;貿易

duties and entitlements:權利和義務

entitle:to furnishwith a right or claim to something 給…權利或給…資格

參考譯文:

有些哲學家論證說,(權利只存在社會契約中,是責任與利益相交換的一部分/權利作為責任與權益相交換的一部分只存在于社會契約當中)。

得分重點:

賓語從句 ,as的用法,多重后置定語

73) It leads the discussion to extremesat the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated eitherwith the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no considerationat all.

結構分析:

73) 簡單句It // leads the discussion to // extremes // 介詞短語作狀語結構at the outset: // 復合句it // invites you to //think // 賓語從句that animals // 被動結構should be treated // 并列結構1 either 介詞短語作方式狀語with the consideration // 定語從句省略結構(that)humans // extend to // other humans, // 并列結構2or // 介詞短語作方式狀語 with no consideration at all.

詞義推敲:

it 指代“the point”(這種觀點,這種說法)。

lead:to guide ordirect in a course 導引在一方向牽引或指

extreme:極端

at the outset 從一開始 = at thestart / beginning

invites you tothink 使人們認為

invite:to tend tobring on; provoke 引起;招致

that animals shouldbe treated 它使人們認為應該這樣對待動物

treat:to act orbehave in a specified manner toward 對待對…以某種特定的方式行動或表現

consideration:thoughtfulconcern for others; solicitude 關心對他人的體貼關心;擔憂

humans extend toother humans 人對待人

extend:to makeavailable; provide 可用;提供

參考譯文:

這種說法從一開始就將討論引向兩個極端,它使人們認為應這樣對待動物:(要么像對人類自身一樣關切體諒,要么完全冷漠無情/要么像人類對待自己一樣去關心動物,要么一點也不關心)。

得分重點:

賓語從句,被動結構,并列結構,定語從句,省略結構

74) Arguing from the view that humansare different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kindthink that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

結構分析:

74) 分詞短語作狀語Arguing from // the view // 同位語從句that humans // are different from // animals // 介詞短語作狀語結構in every relevant respect, // 主句extremists /后置定語of this kind // (指代關系)think// 賓語從句that animals // lie outside // the area of /moral choice.

詞義推敲:

arguing from theview 從……觀點看,持……觀點

be differentfrom... 與……不同

in every relevantrespect 在各相關方面

respect:a particularaspect, feature, or detail 某方面某個方面、某種特征或細節

relevant:having abearing on or connection with the matter at hand 相關聯的和手頭的事務有關系或關聯的

extremists 極端主義者,持極端觀點的人

lie outside thearea of moral choice:不在道德問題范圍,與道德取舍無關

參考譯文:

這類人持極端看法,認為人與動物在各相關方面都不相同,(因此他們認為)對待動物無須考慮道德問題。

得分重點:

同位語從句,賓語從句

75) When that happens, it is not amistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinctthat should be encouraged rather than laughed at.

結構分析:

75) 時間狀語從句When // that // happens, // 并列結構1 it // is not // a mistake: // 并列結構2 it //is // mankind's instinct // 介詞短語作后置定語for moralreasoning / in action, // 獨立主格結構an instinct // 定語從句that // should 并列結構11 被動結構be encouraged // rather than // 并列結構22 省略結構(be)laughed at.

詞義推敲:

that (代詞作主語)聯系上下文應該譯為“當人們產生同情心的時候”

it 兩個“it”都指代“When that happens”,譯作“這”。

mankind's instinctfor moral reasoning 人類道德推理的本能

instinct:an inbornpattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a responseto specific environmental stimuli 本能一種天生的行為方式,其因物種不同而各異,通常是對某一具體環境刺激的反應

reasoning:推理

in action 起作用

rather than 而不

Section IV English-Chinese Translation Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET 2.(15

points)

They were, by far, the largest and most distant objects that scientists had ever detected:a strip ofenormous cosmic clouds some 15 billion light-years from earth.31)

But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15

billion years ago. That was just about the moment that the universe was born. What the researchers found was at once both amazing and expected: the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite --

Cobe--had discovered landmark evidence that the universe did in fact begin with the primeval explosion that has become known as the Big Bang (the theory that the universe originated in an explosion from a single mass of energy).


河南福彩22选5基本走势图